Why did "snake" evolve from the ancient snake totem into a snake demon?

Since ancient times, people have created a variety of wonderful myths. The world in the story has magical power and infinite possibilities. Although now it seems to be empty, the people in the primitive society are in awe of the magical power of nature in nature.Worshiping, over time, each tribe has its own totem. Among them, the snake as the best at that time was believed by most tribal.

According to statistics, a total of 454 individuals were recorded in the "Shan Hai Jing" of the ancient books, and 138 people related to snake -shaped are, accounting for one -third of the total.As the founder of human society, the son -in -law is the goddess of human -faced snakes in the record of ancient books. In addition, according to "The Book of Remaining", "the god of the snake body, that is, the emperor also", this shows that the Qingdi Fuxi is also the same.The existence of human face snakes, including the co -workers of the Water God, and the Vulcan Zhu Rong, all appeared in the image of the human snake. The people in the primitive society gave them the imagination of the snake body, which fully reflected the worship of the ancient ancestors’ snake totems.

▲ Qingdi Fuxi

Among the Mahayana Buddhism in China, the four major King Kong, who was respected as the god of heaven, in addition to the guardians of the world, was also crowned by the ancient people as the meaning of "windy and rainy".The umbrella is rain, and the controller is handed over to the western western eyes of the snake. From the perspective of this relationship, the snake was still a symbol of power and power in ancient times.

Not only in the oriental world, the wisdom goddess and the goddess of victory in ancient Greek mythology are shields with a snake pattern.The meaning of deterning the enemy.

▲ Human face snake body

The ancient people’s worship of this kind of human -faced snake body often comes from the respect of the beast -type snake god, so how did the snake myth come from?

According to Zheng Zhenduo’s explanation in the "Folklore Theory", we can understand that the ancient ancestors’ worship of snakes was due to fear.

During the ancient times, snakes were hostile to the first people. Because people’s living conditions were very bad, they were often attacked by snakes. Once they were attacked by poisonous snakes, people would be injured or disabled.There is a fear of snakes; secondly, the snake’s vitality is extremely strong. It can survive whether it is in the water or on the land. Although the snake has no limbs, it can crawl quickly.The molting regeneration, this strange phenomenon brings a feeling of starting to life to the ancestors, all of which are prepared for the deity of the snake. The ancestors gradually believed that there was a mysterious force on the snake.Fear transitions to awe.As a result, they worshiped the snake as a totem, hoping to be blessed by the snake.

The signs left by the primitive society showed that the snake was auspicious things at the time, and even considered a symbol of rights, and had supreme power.

▲ Sichuan Han Dynasty portrait stone: Fuxi’s son -in -law Tianmi Sun Moon Chongqing portrait brick

The "lack of snake swallowing elephants" we often say now is from the "Shan Hai Jing". The original meaning is that "Pakistan snakes are three years old and are bone." This means that there is a kind of Pakistan snake that can eat elephants to eat elephants.(Legend has it that the Baba snake was born in the South China Sea, black body, blue head, 800 feet long). After swallowing the elephant, it digested for three years before spitting out the bone of the elephant.This shows that the snake in the myths of the ancestors has endless power. Although the body is small, it can eat an elephant 100 times larger than it.

There are also records in "Shan Hai Jing", "Some people say Miao Min, there is a god, the first snake body, long as a ri, there is the first, the clothes, the crown crown, the name of the name, the name of the person,In this way, the world. "The meaning is that Yanwei is a god of the first snake. When people eat it, they will become the world’s hegemon.

These myths show that people want to expand themselves through contact with snakes, and hope that snakes can impart strength, power, courage and skills to themselves.

If a snake is used as a tribal totem, it means that this tribe is convinced that the snake is the name of the snake, and people can avoid suffering.

▲ Portrait of Fuxi Nuwa

The native family located in the Wuling Mountains used snakes as a tribal totem.

It is said that the Tujia people believe that the snake is the incarnation of God and worships daily, and dare not call its name.To this day, their descendants still say that "the house -based snake can’t fight".If they see snakes indoors or the corners of the house, it means that it is a dead man to go home, and they must quickly sacrifice the paper and send money.

The Tujia people not only regarded the snake as a psychic, but also believed that the snake would bring auspiciousness to the people in the tribe.If a woman dreams of snakes, she is a noble son, and men dream of snakes to be promoted. For the health of the clan, they even engraved the snakes with utensils, buckles, and utensils.

With the development of social productivity, philosophers like Xunzi began to think about the generation and cycle of the universe, and pointed out that human blessings are not ghosts.Gradually, people began to affirm their own strength, pay more attention to themselves, and have become more and more thoughtful. In addition to seeking their own satiety, they gradually noticed their joy and sorrow.The emotional transfer to the things they think may have emotions, people give animals emotional, hoping that they are as well as people like people.

▲ Dragon Totem

But why did the image of snakes be demonized in ancient novels?

The biggest reason is the impact of the dragon totem.

After the Qin and Han dynasties, the symbolic meaning of the dragon is inseparable from the imperial power. In addition, as the animals that snakes can be seen everywhere in nature, people gradually have a clear understanding of snakes. Although people are still afraid of snakes, people are afraid of the stake behind the snake."Mysterious power", but only the "poison" and "harm" of the snake itself.

The snake without the "mysterious power" began to fade out of people’s attention and gradually stepped down the altar.

Without the protection of God’s coat, people began to label the animal stickers everywhere in this nature. Due to the ruthlessness and brutality in the nature of the snake, literati began to create a snake -scorpion heart, Buddhist snake heart, beef ghost snake god and other idioms.The image of the snake plummeted.

Gradually, the snake began to be written into the novel by the literati and Mo Ke as a satirical image.According to research, the first demonization of snakes in the history of literature was during the Tang Dynasty.In the Tang Dynasty’s "Surgery", there was a story of a snake demon transformed into an adult shape. It was included in the Song Dynasty’s "Taiping Guangji", and the story was named "Li Huang".

In the story of snake essence, most of the meaning is that the descendants must not be greedy for beauty, but in fact it has nothing to do with the image of the snake.But in order to show a complete story, the literati played the image of the snake, but in one or two, the legendary story was passed down, and the unique literary image of "Snake Scorpion Beauty" gradually became a unique literary image.widely accepted.

During the Ming Dynasty, the image of snakes was subverted in the traditional sense, and it was evident through literary works.The most famous one is the "White Snake Biography", adapted from Feng Menglong’s "White Niangzi Yong Town Leifeng Tower".

In this novel, white snakes and green snakes are affectionate.White snake sacrifice his own way, coming to the world to repay Xu Xian’s kindness, operate pharmacies for Xu Xian, and adventure to save her husband to adopt ganoderma; fighting wisdom with Jinshan Temple Fahai, fighting with Fahai to save the husband;For her husband Xu Xian’s birthday, the spirit of forgetting and sacrifice, ridiculing how many loyal men are loyal; the green snake is upright, jealous, and she is like a sister with the white snake.

▲ White Snake and Green Snake

The image of the white snake in literary works shows a social cognition of good and good news, evil and evil, and reflects the attention and inspiration of women’s pursuit of freedom and liberation in the Ming Dynasty society.The reason why the story of the white snake and the green snake has been circulating, and the most important thing is that the values passed out in literary works are in line with the process of our society and promote the progress of society.The snake was liberated from the image of "demonization".

The change of the image of the snake not only let us see the evolution of human thought, but also shows the mighty growth process of Chinese civilization.

The official team of the History Hall: The rivers are clear

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